WP1 – Project Management
D1.1 – Project Presentation
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MOTO investigates the limits of 4G/LTE technologies in congested conditions and how opportunistic networking (an evolution of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) paradigm) can be used in a trustful manner to offload part of the traffic from the 4G/LTE network. Specifically, in the project view, the offloading operation on the opportunistic network formed by the users’ devices will be synergic with the traffic management on the operator network and with offloading across different wireless infrastructures (such as 4G/LTE to Wi-Fi), and under the control of the operator. In this respect the MOTO project will design, dimension, implement, and evaluate an architecture that takes advantage of the latest advances in opportunistic networking to achieve efficient traffic offloading, in order to help alleviate overloaded cellular infrastructures. This document further details the MOTO approach, illustrating its target objectives and main steps.
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WP2 – Use cases, Requirements & architecture
D2.1 – Use cases and requirements
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The use cases studied in the MOTO project constitute a very large set. Therefore, the challenge in identifying the scenarios that are to be addressed is to capture the major dynamics that are of interest in deploying MOTO systems. Towards this end, a “scenario space” has been proposed that spans five dimensions to fully characterise any offloading scenario considered. Following this “scenario space” classification for offloading services, a various scenarios corresponding to different combinations of “dimension” values could be produced. Thus, those scenarios have been grouped in three different use cases providing for each of them the sets of actors, pre-conditions, and offloading benefits. Then, a set of requirements are derived.
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D2.2.1 – General Architecture of the Mobile Ooading System (Release a)
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This document is release A of deliverable D2.2, General Architecture of the Mobile Offoading System, whose purpose is to provide the description of MOTO’s architecture, based on output of Task 2:1, reported in D2.1, Use Cases and Requirements. First, it reminds the project purpose, its context, and the technical proposition. Then, it studies the related state of the art by providing an overview of related projects, software, and
services.
For the description of the MOTO architecture, which represents the main part of this
document, we have decided to:
• Summarize the uses cases.
• Identify the actors and their roles.
• List the users and system requirements extracted from the use case scenarios.
• Present the system architecture.
• Make the description of the architecture as clear as possible by mapping all the use cases identi ed in Deliverable D2.1 on top of the architecture.Before concluding, the document describes how the MOTO project tackles a number of fundamental research challenges by identifying, describing, and proposing directions to the main problems that have a direct impact on the project outcomes.
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D2.2.2: General Architecture of the Mobile Ooading System (Release B)
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This document is release B of deliverable D2.2, General Architecture of the Mobile Offloading System, whose purpose is to provide the description of MOTO’s architecture, based on output of Task 2.1, reported in D2.1, Use Cases and Requirements. First, it reminds the project purpose, its context, and the technical proposition. Then, it provides responses to the comments and observations related to the rst version review. It describes how network providers may convince their customers to enable ooading capabilities on their contracts and describes the architecture with the following details: ˆ Reminder of the global architecture, ˆ Description of the interfaces exposed by the di erent actors involved in the architecture, ˆ How the proposed architecture may be implemented in a mobile cellular network and a mobile non-cellular network, and How the QoS is addressed in the scope of this architecture. The document then provides an update of the state of the art and a conclusion.

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WP3 – Offloading foundations and enablers
D3.1 – Initial results on offloading foundations and enablers
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This deliverable provides
a first set of enabling concepts, techniques and models for capacity improvements of wireless infrastructures through mobile data traffic offloading. Specifically, we present initial results obtained in the first 7 months of WP3 activities (M4 to M11), along three main lines. The first one is an investigation into the capacity limits of the LTE technology. This clearly shows that there are common cases where LTE users will experience a throughput likely unsuitable to support modern forms of data-oriented multimedia applications. Besides providing initial yet numerical evidence about capacity limitations of LTE, this also provides a clear case for the overall MOTO concept of offloading through opportunistic networking techniques. In the second part we present an initial solution for exploiting the capacity available in opportunistic networks in presence of an LTE infrastructure, i.e. the Push&Track system. Push&Track provides a practical technique to improve capacity through offloading. Therefore, it shows a concrete example of the aspects that need to be analysed and modelled to correctly design an offloading system. Modelling one of those aspects is the main objective of the third line reported in this document. Specifically, we describe a stochastic model to describe the expected delay and number of hops of a set of reference forwarding protocols used in opportunistic networks. As explained in the following of the deliverable, the expected delay is the main parameter determining the throughput perceived by users. Thus, it allows us to characterise the capacity available (in terms of throughput) to users when data is disseminated through an opportunistic network.
Overall, none of these three lines has provided final results, yet. This was anticipated, and appropriate considering the time span of the activities described in this deliverable. However, all of them provide significant initial results that both (further) motivate the investigation of the MOTO offloading concept, and provide initial tools for the design of effective offloading protocols.
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D3.2 – Spatiotemporal characterization of contact patterns in dynamic networks
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The eficiency of opportunistic offoading inherently relies on how the proposed strategies get advantage
from the dynamics of the underlying mobile network. The patterns that govern encounters between nodes
have direct influence on the opportunities to implement device-to-device content exchanges, relieving thus
the cellular infrastructure. In this deliverable, we report the main contributions of the MOTO project
to better understand such patterns. We structure our work around complementary points of view,
ranging from the generalization of mobility modeling, to the impact of duty cycling, to a more complete
investigation of node vicinity. For the sake of completeness, we also consider security trends that may
arise when connectivity is intermittent.

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D3.3.1. – Design and evaluation of enabling techniques for mobile data traffic offloading (release
a)
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This document is the third deliverable of WP3, and reports on the activities and results obtained in the Tasks 3.2 and 3.3 during the second year. Activities on T3.1 are presented in a separate document, i.e. D3.2 [2], which is the logical output of T3.1 (now finished). Activities in WP3 have progressed along the methodology discussed already in D3.1 [1]. As far as capacity assessment is concerned (T3.2) we have both analysed the performance of individual building blocks in isolation, and their performance when they are combined in a complete offload networking solutions. Results of these activities include: (i) analyzing convergence issues in opportunistic networks; (ii) providing end–‐to–‐end delay guarantees in opportunistic networks with duty cycling; (iii) assessing the performance of LTE through modelling; and (iv) assessing the performance of complete offload networks (also using infrastructure WiFi components in addition to cellular and opportunistic) in presence of both synchronized and non–‐synchronised content requests. Moreover, the document also reports results from T3.3 about scheduling. We have analysed scheduling from multiple dimensions. We have analysed both intra–‐technology and inter–‐technology scheduling issues. From the first standpoint, we have considered joint scheduling of multicast and D2D transmissions to optimize offloading. As far as inter–‐technology scheduling is concerned we have developed a general optimization framework based on TOPSIS, in order to optimize allocation of users to the various possible technologies based on different QoS performance indices and criteria. Last but not least, we have analysed how to schedule various architectural components of an LTE network (i.e., pico and macrocells) in order to reduce the LTE energy consumption without compromising the efficiency in terms of throughput perceived by the users. In addition to presenting these results in detail, in Section 1 we remind the general strategy of activities in WP3 and how these results are aligned with it, and how they are synergic with the work undertaken in the rest of the project. At the end of the document, we discuss how WP3 activities are progressing based on these results.

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D3.3.2.Design and evaluation of enabling techniques for mobile data traffic
offloading (release b)
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This document is the fourth deliverable of WP3, and updates the previously published deliverable D3.3.1 [3]. To make the document self-contained, it also includes the same material already presented in D3.3.1. The new results, with respect to D3.3.1, are presented in new sections of this document (specifically, Sections 2.1.4, 2.2.2, 5.4, 6.4 and 7). Section 1 and Section 8 have also been updated to reflect these additions (in particular Section 1.2.3 summarises the key advancements with respect to Y2 results). A new paper has been included in the Appendix, which is a reprint of [16], and another one has been updated, to include the extensions of [56] contained in a journal paper submitted to an international journal. While activities of WP3 have been formally concluded at M29 (March 2015), as suggested by the reviewers during the second project review, we have decided to informally extend the WP activities up to M33 (July 2015). This document presents, therefore, the final results of WP3 activities.
As in the case of D3.3.1, this deliverable reports on the activities and results obtained in the Tasks 3.2 and 3.3. Activities on T3.1 have been presented in a separate document, i.e. D3.2 [2], which is the logical output of T3.1 (finished at M18). Activities in WP3 have progressed along the methodology discussed already in D3.1 [1]. As far as capacity assessment is concerned (T3.2) we have both analysed the performance of individual building blocks in isolation, and their performance when they are combined in a complete offload networking solutions. Results already presented in D3.3.1 related to these activities include: (i) analysing convergence issues in opportunistic networks; (ii) providing end-to-end delay guarantees in opportunistic networks with duty cycling; (iii) assessing the performance of LTE through modelling; and (iv) assessing the performance of complete offload networks (also using infrastructure WiFi components in addition to cellular and opportunistic) in presence of both synchronised and non-synchronised content requests. In this document, we extend this set of results by presenting (i) an analysis of necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence of opportunistic protocols, based on the features of users’ mobility patterns; and (ii) an analysis of the effect of energy conservation techniques (duty cycling) on the detected inter-contact times between nodes, in case of general mobility patterns.
Moreover, the document also reports results from T3.3 about scheduling. We have analysed scheduling from multiple dimensions. We have analysed both intra-technology and inter-technology scheduling issues. From the first standpoint, we have considered joint scheduling of multicast and D2D transmissions to optimise offloading. As far as inter-technology scheduling is concerned we have developed a general optimisation framework based on TOPSIS, in order to optimise allocation of users to the various possible technologies based on different QoS performance indices and criteria. Last but not least, we have analysed how to schedule various architectural components of an LTE network (i.e., pico and macrocells) in order to reduce the LTE energy consumption without compromising the efficiency in terms of throughput perceived by the users. With respect to results already presented in D3.3.1, in this document we have advanced the activities, by (i) defining a learning framework to dynamically tune the share of traffic to be sent via LTE multicast and by D2D communications; (ii) including D2D communications (in addition to LTE and WiFi) in the set of choices available to the TOPSIS optimisation framework, and (iii) including D2D communications ad an additional technology to facilitate energy saving in the LTE access network.
In addition to presenting these results in detail, in Section 1 we remind the general strategy of activities in WP3 and how these results are aligned with it, and how they are synergic with the work undertaken in the rest of the project. At the end of the document, we draw the main conclusions of the WP activities.

 
WP4 – Offloading protocols
D4.1.1: Protocols for terminal-to-terminal communications (release a)
View abstract

The main purpose of this deliverable is to report on the project’s achievements concerning terminal-to-terminal communication strategies. We tackle this challenge with two complementary contributions. Firstly, we propose EPICS, a protocol designed to quickly exchange large contents in opportunistic networks. Using grey relational analysis, EPICS is able to balance the distribution of contents that have di erent sizes and creation times, providing fairer delay distribution and faster dissemination. Secondly, we consider the problem of identifying the best nodes to inject a content through the infrastructure so that the dissemination on the opportunistic domain evolves properly. Our solution is based on an actor-critic algorithm, in which the controller of the dissemination process, once trained, is able to perform at any time the most appropriate choice about the number of content replicas to be injected in the opportunistic network to guarantee the timely delivery of contents to all interested users.

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D4.1.2: Protocols for terminal-to-terminal communications (Release b)
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This deliverable is the second (and nal) release of D4.1 (Protocols for terminal-to-terminal communications). Its main purpose is to report on the project’s achievements concerning terminal-to-terminal communication strategies. One of the fundamental design choices of the MOTO project is to follow a partial coordination strategy. This means that the infuence of the MOTO offloading coordination agent” is limited to deciding when a content should be injected to a given terminal; the opportunistic domain operates in a stand-alone fashion. Whereas opportunistic communications are in general constrained by limited duration and capacity, users, conversely, generate, consume, and share contents that are becoming increasingly larger. In such a situation, opportunistic content-sharing solutions must be reformulated to support efficient dissemination of large contents. In particular, data must be sliced so that smaller pieces are transmitted separately; this leads to a better use of short-lived contacts and promotes progressive content dissemination. There are a number of challenges that we have to face: (i) upon an encounter, a node must decide which content (when multiple contents must be disseminated) should be given priority (inter-content piece selection), (ii) if the selected content is composed of multiple pieces, the node must choose which piece of the content to send fi rst (intra-content piece selection), (iii) if the contact is long enough to accommodate multiple pieces, how many of them should be sent in a row, (iv) as the initial state of the system has direct impact on the quality of the dissemination (i.e., which nodes should have the rst copies of the content), it is also important to determine the initial seeders, and (v) how security solutions operate in the opportunistic domain.
We tackle these challenge with the following complementary contributions. Firstly, we propose EPICS, a protocol designed to quickly exchange large contents in opportunistic networks. EPICS directly addresses the rst two challenges. Using grey relational analysis, EPICS is able to balance the distribution of contents that have di erent sizes and creation times, providing fairer delay distribution and faster dissemination. We evaluated the performance of EPICS in a testbed composed of ten Android smartphones and showed that, when compared to a uniform strategy, EPICS ensures fairer dissemination delays for all the contents regardless of their creation times and sizes. Although EPICS leads to very good results, it does not get the most of longer contacts (that can accommodate several pieces in a row. To address this speci c issue, we propose an extended version of EPICS (called DAD) that selects on-the-fly the most appropriate number of pieces to transmit in a burst. Through experimental evaluation, we show signi cant improvements over the baseline solution. DAD has been selected as the nal MOTO terminal-to-terminal dissemination protocol. We consider then the problem of identifying the best nodes to inject a content through the infrastructure so that the dissemination on the opportunistic domain evolves properly. We propose an adaptive ooading solution based on the reinforcement learning framework and we evaluate and compare the performance of two well known learning algorithms: Actor Critic and Q Learning. More precisely, in our solution the controller of the dissemination process, once trained, is able to perform at any time the most appropriate choice about the number of content replicas to be injected in the opportunistic network to guarantee the timely delivery of contents to all interested users. We show that our reinforcement learning based system is able to automatically learn the best strategy to reduce the trac on the cellular network, without relying on any additional context information about the opportunistic network. Finally, our solution reaches higher level of ooading w.r.t. other state of art approaches, in a range of di erent mobility settings. Finally, we consider security aspects involved in device-to-device communications. We propose fi rst to investigate integrity-preserving data dissemination in D2D networks and, in particular, the problem of reliable communication in a multihop D2D network despite the presence of malicious attacks. The problem proves difficult since even a single malicious attacker node, if not neutralized, can lie to the entire network. We propose then a security solution for D2D communications that consider integrity, con fidentiality, and encryption as the fundamental substrate for the MOTO security framework.

 
D4.2: Protocols for infrastructure offloading control
and coordination
View abstract

This document corresponds to the deliverable D4.2 “Protocols for infrastructure offloading control and coordination”, in FP7-MOTO project. The main purpose is to define the protocols to be used for the communications between the MOTO Platform and the external entities (terminals, infrastructure operators and content providers).
The document identifies different pieces of information required to be exchanged among entities by basing on the MOTO architecture and the involved offloading algorithms, which are also described in the deliverable. Once interfaces and information exchange are defined, different protocols are assessed for each of the interfaces. This exercise results in the selection of RESTful for the Infrastructure and the Application API’s and ATOM for the communications with terminals. Security aspects regarding the communications between the MOTO platform and external entities is also covered, as an advancement of task 4.3. This document will serve as a basis for the implementation of the prototype in work package 5. In that sense, an Appendix, which shows the kind of messages that are to be implemented, is included.

 
D4.3 – Trust and Security Issues and solutions
View abstract

Mobile Opportunistic networking presents a challenging environment from a security perspective. This is because they are more vulnerable to attacks than other networks due to the lack of a central trusted node, dynamic topology of the network and limited resources (bandwidth, processing power and energy consumption). In this sense, MOTO is not a pure opportunistic network as the MOTO platform acts as a central trusted entity and manages the network.
Within this document, the main security considerations, addressed in the MOTO environment, are presented. The document provides the results of the research that has been carried out in Task 4.3, where the security framework has being designed within the project. Indeed, the research performed reveals that the most important security and privacy challenges identified for MOTO are:
A. End-to-end integrity and confidentiality
B. Trust management and hop-to-hop security
C. Identity and location privacy
D. User authentication
E. Mitigating malicious insiders
The trade-off between performance/efficiency of the network and security is also covered. Moreover, the first simulation results of the security performance are provided. Finally, the security implementation approach and planning is presented.

 
WP5 – Experimental validation
D5.1.1 – Description and development of MOTO simulation tool environment (release a)
View abstract


To evaluate the performance of the different offloading strategies and protocols implemented in MOTO, an appropriate simulation environment is needed. The MOTO simulation platform accomplishes this goal and provides a common solution to be used for the performance evaluation and experimental validation of the proposed algorithms.
The scope of this document is to describe the MOTO simulation platform based on ns-3 which is a widely used network simulator for research and education on Internet systems. The document introduces the ns-3 simulator and describes its main features and capabilities, defines the requirements of MOTO simulation platform as a result of previous discussions with project partners, goes into the architecture of MOTO simulation platform; finally, it proposes the set of metrics that will be used to analyze the performance of the offloading solutions.
 
D5.1.2 – Description and development of MOTO simulation tool environment (release b)
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MOTO investigates the limits of LTE technologies in congested conditions and how opportunistic routing protocols can guarantee the offloading and diffusion of data. With respect of these specifications the MOTO project develops and maintains a common simulation platform to be used for the performance evaluation and experimental validation in Task T5.2 of the algorithms and protocols proposed in the WP3 and WP4.
The simulation platform is based on the open source simulator ns-3, which provides a basic environment for running event-driven packet-level simulations, also including packet tracing and collection of statistics.
iTETRIS platform has also been enhanced in order to fully cover the MOTO requirements for vehicular scenarios.
This document further details the MOTO simulation tool environment, the specifications and development status of the ns-3 implemented modules, the software architecture, the definition of a common set of metrics and finally all functionalities enhanced and developed in iTETRIS platform.

 
D5.2 – Evaluation of offloading strategies based on simulations
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This document is in charge of describing the results of the different simulations that have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the different offloading strategies and protocols implemented in MOTO. Two main types of simulations (pedestrian and vehicular) have been conducted in order to cover the main offloading situations where the MOTO services could have important benefits for both the users and the operators.
The simulation environment is high-level described, identifying the modules that have been added to the last release of the MOTO simulation tool. Moreover, the iTetris enhancements that have been implemented and that have resulted into a new iTetris release are presented: http://www.ict-itetris.eu/
In this sense, in order to validate the viability of the proposed security solution, some security simulations have been conducted. The objective of these simulations is to evaluate the impact of applying the security solution to the offloading algorithms.

 
D5.3 – Evaluation of offloading strategies based on experimentation
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This document corresponds to the deliverable D5.3 “Evaluation of offloading strategies based on experimentation”, part of task 5.3 of FP7-MOTO project. The main purpose of the task is to assess selected aspects of the protocols defined in WP3 and WP4 by testing a MOTO prototype under realistic scenarios.
The deliverable describes the main features implemented in the prototype. It defines the testing plan by splitting the tests into functional and performance ones. The testing plan also includes the description of setups used during the testing, having two main setups: multi-operator and “only Wi-Fi”. Testing was performed along three test fests held in April (Istanbul), July (Istanbul) and September (Getxo, Spain) 2015. Prototype was evolved implementing main features (incl. security framework) until a version that allowed executing performance tests and obtaining meaningful results. Analysis of results confirms expectations like DROID offloading algorithm providing a better performance across scenarios. It also provides interesting findings. For instance, MOTO algorithms showed better battery consumption figures than having retrieved the content directing from the WAN. Testing also confirmed that security features, in the way that were implemented, show a negligible impact on the performance.

 
WP6 – Dissemination, standardization, and exploitation
D6.2.1 – Standardization and communication activity report (release a)
View abstract

This document details the standardization and communication plans for the MOTO project. Along the document, a description of the current MOTO identified as interesting, standardization entities and their processes to develop standards are provided, the MOTO standardization and communication goals and strategy are stated, and afterwards, the proposed schedule activities to achieve the stated objectives is defined. Finally, a range of conclusions is given.
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D6.2.2– Standardization and communication activity report (release b)
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This document details the standardization activities carried out in the MOTO project. Along the document, an introduction, where the importance of standardization is exposed, is provided. Afterwards, the standardization strategy followed by the MOTO project is showed. An iterative process was followed, encompassing: standardization potential contributions gathering and subsequent guidance was defined as key enabler to maximize the results of the standardization efforts.
The document then describes the main contribution of the project to standardization. The ProSe standard of 3GPP is described and the contribution of the MOTO achievements to moulding the future standard is exposed.
After this, the document outlines the main standards used during the project to shape the developments and the reasons why these standards have been useful. The main standards used are related to the integration of different communication technologies, the provisioning of vehicular communications and security features.
Finally, the overall standardization activities are analysed in the shape of conclusions, where the standardization activities of MOTO are defended as a success.
 
D6.4 – Workshop report
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Among the several events looking at opportunistic networks, ACM CHANTS (Workshop on Challenged Networks, http://acm-chants.org) is one of the most well established and recognised in the research community. Now in its 9th edition under the name CHANTS, it actually runs since 10 years, considering the first edition, named WDTN (Workshop on Delay-Tolerant Networks). It has been always co-located with prestigious venues, including ACM SIGCOMM and ACM MOBICOM. Statistics show that, despite its long-lasting history, CHANTS has always be able to attract a significant number of submissions and attendees, being an incubator for novel ideas and a forum for stimulating discussion. These were the reasons why we have targeted CHANTS as a primary venue for organising a MOTO workshop in 2014. Our proposal was accepted by the CHANTS Steering Committee. ACM CHANTS 2014 was co-located with ACM MOBICOM, and was held on September 7th, 2014. This gave us the opportunity to discuss MOTO topics in one of the most relevant audiences worldwide, as ACM MOBICOM (and its co-located workshops) is the flagship ACM conference on mobile communications. Furthermore, the fact that this year MOBICOM was organised in the USA, provided CHANTS 2014 the opportunity to disseminate results and views of the MOTO project also within the US research community.
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